Individuals are recognizable not just by their appearancebut by their personality which, despite ageing and change,remains relatively constant through time.Personalities can be classified dimensionally or categorically.A dimensional approach is exemplified by HansEysenk who, following his intellectual opponent Jung,devised a method for assessing personalities along the dimensions of extrovert (outgoing, gregarious, stimulusseeking)and introvert (inner-directed, shy, stimulusavoiding).The problem of differentiating between normal andabnormal personality is even more difficult than in neurosis.There are undoubtedly individuals whose personalitiesare very unusual, at least in the statistical sense, but theyare not necessarily abnormal. An alternative approach tothe classification of personality uses psychiatric categoriesto describe different types of individual. Someone sufferingfrom schizoid personality, for example, is withdrawnand aloof, preoccupied with material objects or intellectualpursuits rather than people, lacking in close emotionalcontact, and is defensive and easily hurt. These featuresmay only be a personality trait, and may even be advantageous:many creative people have schizoid tendencies.However, when taken to extremes they become a personalitydisorder. Here, the individual is so handicapped by his personality that he seeks, or is brought for, help, e.g.someone with a schizoid personality who suffers fromsevere social isolation.Unlike psychosis and neurosis, a personality disorder isnot an illness. Its features date back to
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