Most common Types of Cancer -Thyroid Cancer

Thyroid is one of the largest endocrine glands found in the neck, below the Adam's Apple with the function of regulating the body use of energy, make of proteins by producing its hormones as a result of the stimulation of thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) produced by the anterior pituitary.
Thyroid cancer is defined as condition in which the cells in the thyroid gland have become cancerous.

Types of thyroid cancer
The most common types of thyroid cancer include
1. Papillary thyroid cancer
Papillary thyroid cancer, the most common type of thyroid cancer, makes up about 80 percent of all thyroid cancers. The cancer tends to develop in the women age group between 30-40 years of age and grow slowly. Papillary thyroid cancer can be cure if diagnosed early.
2. Follicular thyroid cancer
Follicular thyroid cancer, the second most common thyroid cancer, makes up about 15 percent of all case. It is a low grow cancer with peak onset ages 40 through 60. Follicular thyroid cancer can be treat successful, if diagnosed early.
3. Medullary thyroid cancer
Medullary thyroid cancer, third most common thyroid cancer makes up about 3 percent of all cases, arise from thyroid hormone producing cells with abnormally high levels of calcitonin. Medullary thyroid cancer tends to grow slowly but it can spread to distant parts of the body, if not treated early.
4. Anaplastic thyroid cancer
Anaplastic thyroid cancer the rare case of thyroid cancer, makes up less than 2 percent of all cases. The cancer cells tend to grow and spread very quickly. Anaplastic thyroid cancer is deadly, with only 10% of alive rate, 3 years after it is diagnosed.
1. Lump in the neck
Due to uncontrollable cells growth and only 5% of this lumps are found to be cancerous.
2. Enlarged lymph node
Cancer has invaded the lymph nodes and its surrounding
3. Change of voice
Hoarseness or difficulty speaking in a normal voice as the tumor has affected the voice-box region.
4. Pain or discomfort in the throat or neck.
5. Problem of swallowing
As a result of tumor has affected the esophagus or of enlarged lymph node
6. Difficult breathing
Cancer may have invaded the lung or may affect either the upper or lower of respiratory track or due to enlarged lymph node
7. Etc.

Causes and risk factors
1. Age
Risk of thyroid cancer increase with age after 30
2. Gender
Women are twice at risk to develop thyroid cancer than men.
3. Race
In US, according to statistic, Caucasians are at greater risk than African Americans to develop thyroid cancer.
5. Exposure to radiation
People who exposed to the radiation therapy at a young age to treat certain cancer are at higher risk to develop thyroid cancer at later age.
6. Family history
Increased risk of thyroid cancer if one of your direct family has a history of thyroid cancer
7. chronic goiter
Risk of thyroid cancer increased if you have a history of enlargement of the thyroid gland.
8. Exposure to certain chemical agents
In a study by Copenhagen researchers, the effect of chemicals such as polychlorinated biphenyls and dioxins on the thyroid. Ron and co-authors noted the correlation between chemicals and increased TSH and the resulting potential "in an increased opportunity for mutations and the development of cancer."
9. Low level of iodine
People with life-long iodine deficiency are more likely to develop thyroid cancer.
10. Heredity
People born with mutation in the RET proto-oncogene are at risk in developing medullary thyroid cancer (MTC).
11. Etc.

Diagnosis and tests
After family history and careful physical examination, If you have a family history of medullary thyroid cancer, blood test for calcitoninis is necessary
1. Blood test
The blood is to determine the levels of calcitoninis, elevation of calcitoninis may be signed of thyroid cancer.
2. Thyroid scan
With the inject of asotope, your doctor can view the images capture which will be classified according the amount asotope of absorption by the thyroid gland. If the gland is actively taking up the isotope, ultrasound will show whether the abnormality is a cyst or not. Thyroid biopsy may be required to further assessment.
3. Thyroid biopsy
In thyroid biopsy, a sample ofthe effected area is taken by a thin needle instrument (thin needle aspirate, under local anesthesia and examined by a pathologist under microscopy to view the type and stage of the cancer.
4. CT Scan (computerized tomography)
A CT scan generates a large series of two-dimensional X-ray images taken around a single axis of rotation, to create a three-dimensional picture of the inside of the body in details.The pictures are viewed by your doctor to see the extent of the tumors abnormalities, such as spreading of cancer to the nearby structure and lymph nodes.
5. Etc.

The Grades of Thyroid cancer are depending to the tendency of spreading. Low grade cancers usually grow more slowly and are less likely to spread while high grade cancer indicates otherwise.

Thyroid cancer is classified as 5 stages
1. Stage 0
If the cancerous cell have not penetrated in deeper tissue but in the surface of the thyroid lining.
2. Stage I
In stage I, The cancerous cells are no longer in the surface but have invaded into deep thyroid lining, but still completely inside the thyroid gland.
Stage IA1
The cancer is not ≤ 3 mm (1/8 inch) deep and ≤ 7 mm (1/4 inch) wide.
a.1. Stage IA1:
The spreading is not less than 3mm(1/8 inch) deep and & less than 7mm (1/4 inch) wide.
a.2. Stage IA2: 
The invasion area is ≥ 3 mm but ≤ 5 mm (about 1/5 inch) deep and & less than 7 mm (about 1/4 inch) wide.
b. Stage IB: 
The cancer in this stage have invaded the connective tissue, & less than 5mm (1/5 inch).
b.1. Stage IB1:
Cancer is 4 cm large (1 3/4 inches).
b.2. Stage IB2:
Cancer is ≥ 4 cm (1 3/4 inches) but & less than 5cm (1/5 inch)
3. Stage II
In stage II, the cancerous cells have spread to distant tissues, but is still within the thyroid gland.
4. Stage III
In this stage, cancerous cells has spread to the tissues immediately surrounding the thyroid gland
5. Stage IV
In this stage, cancerous cells has spread to the tissues immediately outside of the thyroid gland, other distant parts of the body.

A. What to avoid
1. Potassium Iodide
Potassium Iodide (KI) is one of the drug which can absorb radioactive iodine cause of thyroid disease and cancer. Today it has been used worldwide to prevent thyroid cancer in people who are exposed to radioactive iodides.
2. Avoid exposure to radiation
People who exposed to the radiation therapy at a young age to treat certain cancer are at higher risk to develop thyroid cancer at later age. Extra precaution to prevent exposure the thyroid gland when X ray is taken.
3. Avoid Iodine deficiency
Increase Iodine intake from diet to prevent iodine deficiency cause of thyroid cancer.
4. Avoid certain chemical agents
Chemicals such as polychlorinated biphenyls and dioxins can increase the risk of thyroid cancer
5. Lose weight
In an article Published in the journal Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers and Preventionthe meta-study indicated that the risk of thyroid cancer increases for obese men at roughly the same rate as it does for women.
5. Avoid chlorine and fluoride
Chlorine and fluoride are chemically related to iodine and they can block iodine receptors
6. Etc.

B. Diet
1. Cruciferous vegetables
Cruciferous vegetables such as cauliflower, broccoli, cabbage, etc. beside contain high amount of antioxidants, but also phytonutrients that have been shown to help prevent the onset and halt the progression of certain cancers.
2. Green tea
In some clinical studies researchers suggested that the polyphenols in green tea, may play an important role in the prevention of cancer by killing cancerous cells and stopping their progression.
3. Garlic
An analysis of several case-controlled studies in Europe suggests an inverse association between garlic consumption and risk of common cancers.
4. Tomato
Many studies showed that antioxidant lycopene in tomato inhibits cancer cell growth and exhibit apoptosis, causing cell death.
5. Soy
In laboratory studies, saponins have shown the ability to inhibit the reproduction of cancer cells and slow the growth of tumors in several different tissues.
6. Etc.

C. Nutritional supplements
1. Free radicals scavengers
Vitamin A, C, E are free radical scavengers enhanced the immune system against the forming of free radicals and prevent the alternation of cell DNA cause of abnormal cell growth.
2. Modified citrus pectin
In a study of researcher found modified citrus pectin may help block the growth and metastasis of solid tumors.
3. Selenium
Research showed that selenium has a protective effect on various stages of cancer, including both the early and later stages of the disease. In a study in large groups of people, researchers found that in areas of the world where selenium levels in the soil are high, death rates from cancer are significantly lower than in areas where selenium levels are low.
4. Lycopene
Many studies showed that antioxidant lycopene in tomato inhibits cancer cell growth and exhibit apoptosis, causing cell death.
5. Beta -carotene
In some laboratory, animal, and human studies, researchers found that vitamin A, certain retinoids may also inhibit cancer development.
6. Etc.

A. In conventional medicine
Treatment of thyroid cancer not only depends on the stage, grade but also age of the patient. Thyroid cancer occurs in older people tends to be aggressive, while in young adulthood and adolescence are curative
1. Surgery
The objective of the surgery is to cure, especial in the younger age group. If the cancer is low-grow and in the early stage, in most case after the thyroid gland was removed, patient will need to take thyroxine tablets for the rest of his/her life. If the cancer has spread to the nearby lymph nodes, the lymph nodes are also removed in the same surgery.
If your blood indicates that you have an elevation of calcitoninis, an inherited medullary thyroid cancer, then surgery may be only treatment.
2. Radioactive Iodine
Radioactive iodine usually is also used to treat hyperthyroidism. In case of thyroid cancer, radioactive iodine helps to destroy any remaining thyroid cancer cells after surgery.
Since it is highly radioactive, avoid exposing radioactivity to your family members or other people, there are some instructions that you must follow for the first 5 days after your treatment
a. Drink plenty of fluids.
b. Avoid contact with children and pregnant women.
c. Sleep in your own room.
d. Use separate towels, face cloths, and sheets.
e. Wash above and your personal clothing separately for 5 days
f. Etc.
3. Radiotherapy
a. Radiation may be used for stages II, III, and IV to kill any cancer cells remaining in the body. By using high-energy x-rays or other types of radiation, radiation therapy kills the cancer cells and keep them from growing or regrowing.
b. Side effects
b.1. Fatigue
b.2. Chest pain
b.3. Heart problem
b.4. Short of breath
b.5. Skin discoloration or pinkness, irritation.
b.6. Etc.
In the elder, and if the cancer has spread, chemotherapy may be recommended

4. Chemotherapy
Chemotherapy is most use to treat with advance stage of cancer combined with radio therapy, as it has spread to a distant parts of the body by using drugs taken by mouth or injected into a vein or muscle of the patient to stop the growth of or to kill cancer cells.
b. Side effects
b.1. Nausea
b.2. Vomiting
b.3. Hair loss
b.4. Fatigue
b.5. Anemia
b.6. Mouth sores taste and smell changes
b.7. Infection
b.8. Etc.

B. Herbal medicine
1. Aloe
in some studies, researchers suggest that some chemical compounds of aloe, such as acemannan, aloeride, and di(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate (DEHP) may have immunomodulating and anticancer effects.
2. Absinthe
Absinthe is also known as Wormwood, a distilled, highly alcoholic beverage flowers extracted from leaves of the herb Artemisia absinthium. In a study, researcher at the University of Washington found that wormwood can be used as a promising potential treatment for cancer.
3. Fenugreek
Fenugreek is used both as a herb (the leaves) and as a spice (the seed), genus Trigonella, belonging to family Fabaceae. Vitro studies have shown that fenugreek exhibits chemopreventive properties against certain cancers.
4. Devil's Claw
The extract of Harpagophytum procumbens, commonly known as devil's claw,
In vitro studies, researchers found that cat's claw demonstrated anticancer effects against several cancer cell lines and has been reported to be effective in the treatment of lymphoma cancer, according to a study conducted by K. S. Wilson, M.D., which was published in the journal "Current Oncology" in August 2009.
5. Celandine
Celandine is a herbaceous perennial plant, genus Chelidonium, belonging to the family Papaveraceae, native to Europe and western Asia and introduced widely in North America.
In a study of Ukrain (Ukrain is an anticancer drug based on the extract of the plant)– a new cancer cure? A systematic review of randomised clinical trials, researcher suggested, according to the data from randomised clinical trials that Ukrain to have potential as an anticancer drug. However, numerous caveats prevent a positive conclusion, and independent rigorous studies are urgently needed.
6. Etc

C. Traditional Chinese medicine
1. Pu Kong Yin (Dandelion Root)
Thyroid DysfunctionIn a study of the efficacy of dandelion root extract in inducing apoptosis in drug-resistant human melanoma cells, researchers found that treatment with this common, yet potent extract of natural compounds has proven novel in specifically inducing apoptosis in chemoresistant melanoma, without toxicity to healthy cells.
2. Xia Ku Cao (Selfheal Fruit-Spike)
Researchers found that cyasterone in Xia Ku Cao showed anti tumor activity.
3. Qing hao
Qing hao is also known as wormwood. In a study, researcher at the University of Washington researcher found that wormwood can be used as a promising potential treatment for cancer among the ancient arts of Chinese folk medicine.
4. Jie Geng
The Researchers found that aponins in Jie Geng have been shown to very significantly augment the cytotoxicity of immunotoxins and other targeted toxins directed against human cancer cells.
5. Gan Cao
Gan Cao is also known as Licorice root. In-vitro, researchers found that saponins in Gan Cao stimulate the immune system and inhibit Epstein-Barr virus expression and possess anti-cancer activities.